• Some of the major Challenges in Heat Exchangers are :-
    • To minimize size and weight.
    • To minimize pressure drop.
    • To meet required life.
    • To be resistant to fouling and contamination.
    • To minimize cost.
  • Fouling

    Fouling occurs when impurities deposit on the heat exchange surface. Deposition of these impurities can decrease heat transfer effectiveness significantly over time and are caused by:

    • Low wall shear stress
    • Low fluid velocities
    • High fluid velocities
    • Reaction product solid precipitation
    • Precipitation of dissolved impurities due to elevated wall temperatures
  • Heat exchanger performance can deteriorate with time, off design operations and other interferences such as fouling, scaling etc. It is necessary to assess periodically the heat exchanger performance in order to maintain them at a high efficiency level.